In large-scale mechanical equipment and important equipment, such as steel rolling, power stations (hydropower, thermal power, nuclear power), petroleum, chemical, shipbuilding, aviation, aerospace, heavy weapons, etc., large free forgings and large die forgings are required. It is forged using a large free forging hydraulic press and a large die forging hydraulic press. Therefore, the production of large forgings is very important in advanced industrial countries. From the variety, quantity and grade of large free forging hydraulic presses and large forging hydraulic presses owned by a country, the industrial level and national defense strength can be measured. The number of large free forging hydraulic presses and die forging hydraulic presses in the world is shown in Table 1. Due to age and source of information, there will be discrepancies for reference.
The large forging hydraulic press was gradually developed with the needs of the aviation industry. As early as before the Second World War, in order to launch the war of aggression and the need to manufacture fighters, the 70MN die forging hydraulic press was manufactured in 1934, 1938- -In 1944, it also produced one 300MN die forging hydraulic press and three 150MN die forging hydraulic presses. In 1937, the United Kingdom manufactured a 120MN die forging hydraulic press. In other countries, there is no 10,000-ton forging hydraulic press.
In 1942, the Second World War broke out. In order to speed up the production of fighter aircraft, the United States built more than 100 small and medium-sized forging hydraulic presses, but the maximum nominal pressure was only 50 MN. After the end of World War II in 1945, the United States and the Soviet Union removed a batch of 10,000-ton die forging hydraulic presses from Germany on the grounds of compensation for the defeat of Germany. The United States removed two 150MN die forging hydraulic presses, and the Soviet Union removed 150MN and 300MN die forging. One hydraulic press.
During the period from 1950 to 1952, the United States produced 1 set of 1OOMN and 126MN die forging hydraulic presses, and the UK added a second 120MN die forging hydraulic press.
In 1953, two 200MN die forging hydraulic presses were manufactured in France.
In 1955, in order to develop the aircraft manufacturing industry, MESTA manufactured a 450MN die forging hydraulic press for Alcoa. At the same time, United Engineering Company built a 315MN die forging hydraulic press for Alcoa. In the same year, LOEWY manufactured a 450MN forging hydraulic press and a 315MN forging hydraulic press for Wyman-Gordon.
In 1956, the 120MN die forging hydraulic press built in Czechoslovakia was put into operation at the SKODA plant.
The Soviet Union developed the aviation and aerospace industries from 1961 to 1964, during which six large forging hydraulic presses were built. For example, the new Kramatot Heavy Machinery Plant (HKM3) manufactures two 750MN die forging hydraulic presses, which are installed at the Kubitsh Aluminum Plant and the Upper Salda Titanium Plant. The Ural Heavy Machinery Plant (Y3TM), the New Kramato Heavy Machinery Plant and the Novosibirsk Heavy Machinery Plant each manufacture a 300MN die forging hydraulic press. During this period, HKM3 also manufactured a 150MN die forging hydraulic press.
In 1961, a 180MN multi-directional forging hydraulic press from the Cameroon Steel Company of the United States was put into production.
In 1962, China designed and manufactured the 300MN die forging hydraulic press, and then designed and manufactured the 1OOMN multi-directional forging hydraulic press.
In 1964, the 300MN die forging hydraulic press built in Germany was put into production.
In 1967, the 300MN multi-directional forging hydraulic press of the Cameroon Steel Company of the United Kingdom was put into production.
In 1972, Sweden built a new 800 MN wire-wound structural forging hydraulic press.
In 1976, the French company AD ordered a 650MN multi-directional forging hydraulic press from the Soviet New Klamata Heavy Machinery Plant (HKM3).
There are more than 40 large forging hydraulic presses in the world, 42% of which are in the United States. The United States WymanGordon company, Russia BCMIIO company, France AD company is the world's die forging. The three types of hydraulic machines with the highest nominal pressure, variety and quantity are listed in Table 3.
With the development of aviation and aerospace industry, the emergence of various high-temperature alloy materials and difficult-to-deform materials, a hot isostatic pressing technology (ie, isothermal die forging process) has begun to be applied abroad. The nominal pressure of foreign isothermal forging hydraulic presses is 23~72MN, and whether there are large isothermal forging hydraulic presses is unknown. There are three sets of 1OOMN isothermal forging hydraulic presses in China. The isothermal die forging hydraulic press is mainly used for hot die forging and isothermal superplastic forming of difficult-to-deform materials such as aluminum alloy, titanium alloy, high-temperature alloy and powder alloy. The forging feature is that the density of the deformed material can be improved by the large pressure, the long dwell time and the slow deformation speed, and the grain of the material is refined to improve the comprehensive performance of the forging and improve the deformation uniformity of the entire forging. Difficult to deform materials and complex structural forgings meet the design requirements by isothermal forging and superplastic deformation, saving 40% of materials. Achieve less machining or net shape targets. Isothermal forging hydraulic presses are key equipment for the production of important forgings in aerospace, aerospace, aerospace and other important machinery.